American Oil & Gas Historical Society

Wind, of course, is a derivative of solar power since it merely represents air currents which form in response to the uneven heating of the atmosphere. But, it will cost money up front (which we’ll get back in the form of energy savings). Remember any savings we make in CO2 emissions will help toward the reduction in Global warming. And, coincidentally, this would make it much easer for renewable energy to replace fossil fuels since we would ultimately need far less energy production to replace them. But it is at a very slow rate compared to the rate we need. In 2015, Colombia has a 3.5 growth rate per year to meet the rising energy demand. But it won’t matter what we prefer when the rate of production of nonrenewable energy sources starts to decline. Production Sharing Contract (PSC), first introduced in Indonesia in 1966, is a risk contract for oil companies to access oil and gas resources which are widely used in many oil and gas producing countries.

We have the same access to it today, tomorrow and for the next 5 billion years. What’s more, sunlight is not becoming more difficult to access. But, as a practical matter, the physical limits of sunlight will NEVER, EVER be reached. All these limits on renewable energy explain in part why we have not embraced it as fully as we need to, and why we still prefer fossil fuels and uranium for the lion’s share of our energy needs. There are some limits to solar and wind power, however, that have nothing to do with their fuel source, sunlight. The light from the sun is not becoming less and less intense over the long run forcing researchers to think of ways to capture more and more of the diminishing intensity of sunlight. But we are so very far from that, that I think it will likely never become anything but a sporadic local issue far into the future. If we do that, we have a much better chance of making a successful transition to a renewable energy economy–a transition which will happen whether we like it or not. Even with these efforts our current and increasingly urgent energy transition would still take a long time.

We are slowly beginning the transition to electric vehicles. So now, we are arriving at the difficult ones: shale gas, tight oil, tar sands and low-grade uranium deposits. And, we can expect that this will happen for the world at some point, not only for oil, but for natural gas, coal and uranium as well. Advancements in technology designed to extract more oil, natural gas, coal and uranium from the ground are in a race with geological constraints. Each technology progresses amid a different and highly consequential backdrop. But, as the technology improves, more places will be practical for the placement of wind towers and small household wind devices. Small hydroelectric still has possibilities in developed countries. It both adds small amounts of necessary nutrients (like healthy fats and some vitamins), while also blending the flavours together for a more full-bodied effect. While radioactive, it is benign enough to use in making glow-in-the-dark watch hands.

We actually know right now how to make dramatic reductions in energy use while only affecting our daily activities minimally. On the other hand, there will be some days where I consume up to 8000 calories, simply because that is how many I actually burn through with my activities! Instead, even though there are cycles to the sun and cloudy days, the light from the Sun that hits the Earth is remarkably steady. Geothermal energy has vast potential, but low efficiency given the costs of extracting it from deep in the Earth. Typically, fusion reactors use very specific forms of hydrogen such as deuterium which has a neutron in addition to hydrogen’s proton and constitutes only one in 6,420 atoms of hydrogen found on earth. The results suggest that incorporation of Mo in the steel reduces the subsurface hydrogen content when the steel is in the active state, suggesting repressed dissolution kinetics.